Further reading

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Apple, Michael (ed). Cultural and economic reproduction in education. London: Routledge, 1982.

Basu, K. Teacher truancy in India: the role of culture, norms and economic incentives. New York: Cornell University, 2006.

Carr, Wilfred (ed). The routledge falmer reader in philosophy of education. London and New York: Routledge, 2005.

Chanana, Karuna. Interrogating women’s education: bounded visions, expanding horizons. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat, 2001.

Clarke, P. Teaching and learning – the culture of pedagogy. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2001.

Dewey, John. Democracy and education. New York: The Free Press, 1916 and 1944.

Govinda, R. (ed). India education report: a profile of basic education. New Delhi: OUP, 2002.

Kingdon, Geeta and Mohd. Muzammil. The political economy of education in India: teacher politics in Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Kumar, Krishna. Social character of learning. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1989.

Kumar, Krishna. The meek dictator: the Indian teacher in historical perspective, in N. Entwistle (ed.), Handbook of educational ideas and practices. London: Routledge, 1990.

Kumar, Krishna. Prejudice and pride: school histories of the freedom struggle in India and Pakistan. Delhi: Viking, 2001.

Kumar, Krishna. Political agenda of education: a study of colonialist and nationalist ideas. Revised. New Delhi: Sage, 2006.

Lisa, D. Delpit. The silenced dialogue: power and pedagogy in educating other people’s children, in A.H. Halsey et al., Education: culture economy and society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Naik, J.P. The education commission and after. New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1982.

PROBE. Public report on basic education in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Sarangapani, Padma M. Constructing school knowledge: an ethnography of learning in an Indian village. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2003.

Sharma, Rashmi and Vimala Ramachandran. The elementary education system in India: exploring institutional structures, processes and dynamics. New Delhi: Routledge (forthcoming).

Vaidyanathan, A. and P. R. Gopinathan Nair (eds). Elementary education in rural India: a grassroots view. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2001.



Aruna, R. Learn thoroughly: primary schooling in Tamil Nadu. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 34(18): 1999: 1011-1014.

Balagopalan, S. Understanding educational innovation in India: the case of Ekalavya. ‘Education Dialogue’ 1(1): 2003: 97-121.

Batra, Poonam. Voice and agency of teachers: the missing link in the national curriculum framework 2005. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ XL(40): 1 October 2005: 4347-56.

Batra, Poonam. Building on the national curriculum framework to enable the agency of teachers. ‘Education Dialogue’ 4(1): 2006: 88-118.

Bhat, V.D. A study of the discrepancy between the expected and actual outcomes of the primary teacher education programme. ‘Indian Education Review’ 32(2): 1997: 156-164.

Chaudhury N., J. Hammer, M. Kremer, K. Muralidharan and F.H. Rogers. Missing in action: teacher and health worker absence in developing countries. ‘Journal of Economic Perspectives’ 20(1): 2006: 91-116.

Dyer, Caroline, Archana Choksi, Vinita Awasty, Uma Iyer, Renu Moyade, Neerja Nigam and Neetu Purohit. Democratizing teacher education research in India. ‘Comparative Education’ 38(3): 2002: 337-351.

Dyer, C. Decentralisation to improve teacher quality? District tnstitutes of education and training in India. ‘Compare’ (a journal of comparative education) 35(2): 2005: 139-152.

Goodson, I.F. Sponsoring the teacher’s voice: teachers’ lives and teacher development. ‘Cambridge Journal of Education’ 21(1): 1991: 35-45.

Jangira, N.K. Rethinking teacher education. ‘Prospects’ XXV(2): 1995: 261-272.

Kishore, L. School effectiveness via transfer of initiative to teachers. ‘The Primary Teacher’ XXIX(2): 2004: 5-9.

Raina, V.K. Teacher educators in India: in search of an identity. ‘Journal of Teacher Education’ 46(1): 1995: 45-52.

Rajput, J.S. and K. Walia. Reforms in teacher education in India. ‘Journal of Educational Change’ 2(3): 2001: 239-256.

Ramachandran, Vimala. Why school teachers are demotivated and disheartened. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 40(21): 2005: 2141-2144.

Sadgopal, Anil. EGS and primary schooling. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 38(33): 2003: 3511-3512.

Sharma, R. and S. Singhal. In-service training of primary school teachers: what gains? ‘Journal of Educational Planning and Administration’ 13(4): 1999: 451-464.

Sharma, Rashmi. What manner of teacher – some lessons from Madhya Pradesh. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 34(25): 1999: 1597-1607.

Vasavi, A.R. Schooling for a new society? The social and political bases of education deprivation in India. ‘IDS Bulletin’ 34(1): 2003: 72-80.



Aga Khan Foundation. Report of the national seminar on teacher development, 4-5 May 2007, Hyderabad. New Delhi: PESLE seminar series, 2007.

Aggarwal, Yash. An assessment of trends in access and retention. New Delhi: NIEPA, November 2002.

Alexander, Robin. Education for all: the quality imperative and the problem of pedagogy. CREATE Research Monograph (draft). London: Institute of Education and New Delhi: NUEPA, February, 2008.

Anandalakshmy, S. Activity based learning – a report on an innovative method in Tamilnadu. Chennai: Government of Tamil Nadu Publication, 2007.

Anderson, L.W. Increasing teacher effectiveness. Paris: IIE, 2004.

Arora, G. Assessing primary teachers training needs: self learning package for trainer and data collection tools. New Delhi: NCERT, 1998.

Bajpai, Nirupama and Sangeeta Goyal. Primary education in India: quality and coverage issues. CGSD (Columbia University) Working Paper No. 11, February, 2004.

Blum, Nicole and Rashmi Diwan. Small multigrade schools and increasing access to primary education in India: national context and NGO initiatives. London: Institute of Education, University of London and New Delhi: NUEPA (CREATE Research Monograph No. 17), October 2007.

Chand, P.G.V.S. and S.R. Shukla. Teachers as transformers: learning from outstanding primary school teachers. Gandhinagar: Unicef, 1998.

Darling-Hammond, Linda. Career-long teacher development: policies that make sense. Presentation to the WestEd board of directors, March 2000 (written by Joan McRobbie).

De, Anuradha, Claire Noronha and Meera Sampson. India: primary schools and universal elementary education. India education team report no. 3. New Delhi: World Bank, 2001.

Dhankar, Rohit. Seeking quality education: an area of fun and rhetoric. New Delhi: The European Commission, occasional paper, 2002.

Dyer, C. and A. Choksi. District institutes of education and training: a comparative study in three Indian states. London: DFID Policy Division (education papers), 2004.

Dyer, C. The improvement of primary school quality in India: successes and failures of operation blackboard. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 1996 (Edinburgh Papers in South Asian Studies No. 4).

GoI. Report of the education commission (1964-66): education and national development. (Chair, D.S. Kothari) New Delhi: Ministry of Education, 1967.

GoI. National policy on education and programme of action. New Delhi: MHRD, 1986.

GoI. District institutes of education and training: guidelines. New Delhi: MHRD, 1989.

GoI. National policy on education and programme of action. New Delhi: MHRD, 1992.

GoI. Successful government initiatives and best practices – experience from Indian states. Planning Commission and UNDP. New Delhi: Planning Commission, 2005.

GoI. Teacher education, in working group report for the XI plan. New Delhi: MHRD, 2007.

Govinda, R. Role of head teachers in school management in India: case studies from six states. New Delhi: The European Commission, 2002.

Jandhyala, K., B. Pattanayak and V. Ramachandran. Inventory of innovative practices to strengthen the public education system with special attention to children at risk. New Delhi: Educational Resource Unit, 2006.

Kaul, Anita. Nalikali – the joy of learning; sustainability and replicability. Power point presentation made at the APF national seminar. Bangalore: October 2005.

Mahapatra, Amukta. Activity based learning program in schools of Chennai corporation, in Kameshwari Jandhyala and Vimala Ramachandran (eds.), Enabling most deprived children to learn: lessons from promising practices. New Delhi: ILO, 2006 (unpublished mimeo).

Muralidharan, K. and M. Kremer. Public and private schools in rural India. Harvard: Harvard University, Department of Economics, 2006.

Nair, K.N. (coordinator). Quality of school education in Kerala: dimensions and determinants. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Research Programme Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, 1999.

Narayan, Krishna. Innovative public management strategies to address the problems of teacher absenteeism and poor quality in rural government primary schools in India: an exploratory review. The Hague: Institute of Social Studies (MA dissertation), 2007.

National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE). Draft curriculum framework for quality teacher education. New Delhi: NCTE, 2006.

NCERT. National curriculum framework 2005 (NCF). New Delhi: NCERT, 2005.

NCERT. National focus group position paper on teacher education for curriculum renewal. New Delhi: 2005.

NCERT. National focus group on systemic reforms for curriculum change. NCF 2005 position paper. New Delhi: NCERT, 2006.

NCERT. Teacher education for curriculum renewal. NCF 2005 position paper. New Delhi: NCERT, 2006.

NCERT. The reflective teacher: organisation of in-service training of the teachers of elementary schools under SSA. New Delhi: NCERT, 2006.

NCTE. The teacher and the society: report of the national commission on teachers (1983-85). New Delhi: NCTE.

NIEPA. Education for all – primary teacher training in the EFA. New Delhi: NIEPA, 2000.

NIEPA. Education for all – status of elementary teachers of India. New Delhi: NIEPA, 2000.

Pratham Resource Centre. Annual status of education report. Mumbai: Pratham, 2006, 2007, 2008.

Ramachandran, V., M. Pal and Sharada Jain. Teacher motivation in India. New Delhi: Educational Resource Unit, 2005.

Ramachandran, Vimala (ed). Hierarchies of access: gender and social equity in primary education in India. New Delhi: The European Commission, 2002.

Thomas, E., M. Sharma, A. Khanna and H. Jatoi. Professional development of teachers: policy and practice in initial teacher training. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 1993.