Further reading

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There are numerous websites which are helpful as regards gaining a basic understanding of the legal framework within which cinema exists in India. The ones that have been most helpful to me are www.indialawinfo.com and www.cscsarchive.org (The Media & Culture Archive maintained by the Centre for the Study of Culture and Society, Bangalore).



The Cinematograph Act, 1952.

The Cinematograph (Amendment) Act, 1984 (Amended to include the screening of video films).

The Punjab Cinemas (Regulation) Act, 1952 (As applicable to Delhi from 15.12.1980).

The Dramatic Performances Act, 1876.

Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995.

Cinematograph (Certification) Rules, 1983.

Cinematograph Film Rules, 1948.

The Cine-Workers Welfare Fund Act, 1981.

The Cine-Workers and Cinema Theatre Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act, 1981.

The Copyright Act, 1957.

The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986.

The Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) Act, 1990.

The Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971.

The Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act, 1956.



Report of the Indian Cinematograph Committee 1927-1928 (also known as the Rangachariar Committee Report). Government of India, Central Publication Branch, Calcutta.

Report of the Film Enquiry Committee 1951 (also known as the Patil Committee Report). Government of India Press, New Delhi.

Report of the Enquiry Committee on Film Censorship 1968-1969 (also known as the Khosla Committee Report). GOI, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.

Report of the Working Group on National Film Policy 1980. GOI, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, New Delhi.



An important moment in the career of cinema studies writing in India is the ‘Roja’ debate, started by Tejaswini Niranjana’s provocative essay on the Mani Ratnam film. The following are some references for that debate:

Bharucha, R. On the border of fascism: manufacture of consent in Roja. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 29(23): 4 June 1994: 1389-1395.

Chakravarty, V. and M.S.S. Pandian. More on Roja. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 29(11): 12 March 1994: 642-644.

Dirks, N.B. The home and the nation: consuming culture and politics in Roja, in C. Pinney and R. Dwyer (eds) Pleasure and the nation: the history, politics and consumption of public culture in India. Delhi: OUP, 2001. [The Dirk essay was not a part of the initial debate but can be read alongside it.]

Niranjana, T. Roja revisited. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 29(21): May 1994: 1299.

Niranjana, T. Whose nation? tourists and terrorists in Roja. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 24(3): 15 January 1994: 79-82.

Patnaik, A.K. Idealistic equations. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 29(32): 6 August 1994: 2108.

Srinivas, S.V. Roja in law and order state. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 29(20): 14 May 1994: 1225-1226.

Vasudevan, R. Other voices: Roja against the grain. ‘Seminar’ 423: November 1994: 43-47.



Barnouw, Eric and S. Krishnaswami. Indian film (2nd edn.) New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Baskaran S.T. The eye of the serpent: an introduction to Tamil cinema. Madras: East-West Books, 1996.

Bhowmik, S. Indian cinema, colonial contours. Calcutta: Papyrus, 1995.

Brosius, C. and M. Butcher (eds). Image journeys: audio-visual media and cultural change in India. London: Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1999.

Chakravarty, Sumita S. National identity in Indian popular cinema, 1947-1989. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993.

Chatterjee, Gayatri. Awara. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern, 1993.

Chatterjee, Partha. A bit of song and dance, in Aruna Vasudev (ed) Frames of mind: reflections on Indian cinema. Bombay, Calcutta, Bangalore, Madras: UBS Publishers, 1995.

Chowdhry, P. Colonial India and the making of empire cinema: image, ideology, and identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.

Das, Veena. The making of modernity: gender and time in Indian cinema, in T. Mitchell (ed) Questions of modernity. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Das, Veena. On soap opera: what kind of an anthropological object is it? in D. Miller (ed) World’s apart: modernity through the prism of the local. London: Routledge, 1995.

Dasgupta, Chidananda. The painted face: studies in India’s popular cinema. New Delhi: Roli Books, 1991.

Derne, Steve. Movies, masculinity, and modernity: an ethnography of men’s filmgoing in India. Westport: Greenwood, 2000.

Dickey, S. Cinema and the urban poor in south India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Dissanayake, Wimal (ed). Melodrama and Asian cinema. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Doraiswamy, Rashmi. Hindi commercial cinema: changing narrative strategies, in Aruna Vasudev (ed) Frames of mind: reflections on Indian cinema. Delhi: UBSPD, 1995.

Gandhy, Behroze and Rosie Thomas. Three Indian film stars, in Christine Gledhill (ed) Stardom: industry of desire. London: Routledge, 1991.

Ghosh, Shohini. The troubled existence of sex and sexuality: feminists engage with censorship, in Christiane Brosius and Melissa Butcher (eds) Image journeys. New Delhi: Sage Publications; London: Thousand Oaks, 1999, 233-259.

Hardgrave, R.L. When stars displace the gods: the folk culture of cinema in Tamil Nadu. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975.

Hughes, S. Policing silent film exhibition in colonial south India, in Ravi Vasudevan (ed) Making meaning in Indian cinema. Delhi: OUP, 2000, 2001.

Kabir, Munni. Talking films: conversations on Hindi cinema with Javed Akhtar. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Kesavan, Mukul. Urdu, Awadh and the tawaif: the Islamicate roots of Hindi cinema, in Zoya Hasan (ed) Forging identities: gender, communities and the state. Delhi: Kali for Women, 1994.

Mankekar, P. Screening culture, viewing politics: an ethnography of television, womanhood, and nation in postcolonial India. Duke University Press, 1999 and Delhi: OUP, 2000.

Mazumdar, R. Ruin and the uncanny city: memory, despair and death in ‘Parinda’. Sarai Reader 02: Cities of everyday life. Delhi and Amsterdam, 2002.

Mishra, V. Bollywood cinema: temples of desire. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Nandy, Ashis. The secret politics of our desires: nation, culture, and gender in Indian popular cinema. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

Nandy, Ashis. An intelligent critic’s guide to Indian cinema, in The savage Freud and other essays on possible and retrievable selves. Princeton: Princeton University Press, and Delhi: OUP, 1995.

Pandian, M.S.S. Parasakthi: life and times of a DMK film, in R. Vasudevan (ed) Making meaning in Indian cinema. Delhi: OUP, 2000, 2001.

Pandian, M.S.S. Politics of representation: women in the films of M.G. Ramachandran, in T.V. Satyamuthy (ed) Region, religion, caste, gender and culture in contemporary India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Pandian, M.S.S. The image trap: M.G. Ramachandran in films and politics. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1992.

Pinney, C. Camera Indica: the social life of Indian photographs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Prasad, Madhava. Ideology of the Hindi film: a historical construction. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Rajadhyaksha, A. and Geeta Kapur. Bombay/Mumbai 1992-2001, in Iwona Blazwick (ed) Century cuty: art and culture in the modern metropolis. London: Tate Publishing, 2000.

Rajadhyaksha, Ashish and Paul Willemen. Encyclopaedia of Indian cinema. London: British Film Institute/New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994. Distributed in USA by Indiana University Press, second revised edition, 1999.

Rajagopal, A. Politics after television: Hindu nationalism and the reshaping of the public in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Roberge, Gaston. Communication, cinema, development: from morosity to hope. New Delhi: Manohar, 1998.

Srinivas, S.V. Devotion and defiance in fan activity, in Ravi Vasudevan (ed) Making meaning in Indian cinema. Delhi: OUP, 2000.

Thomas, R. Melodrama and the negotiation of morality in mainstream Hindi film, in C. Breckenridge (ed) Consuming modernity: public culture in a south Asian world. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1995.

Uberoi, P. Imagining the family: an ethnography of viewing Hum Aapke Hain Kaun…! in C. Pinney and R. Dwyer (eds) Pleasure and the nation: the history, politics and consumption of public culture in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Uberoi, P. The diaspora comes home: disciplining desire in DDLJ, in V. Das, D. Gupta and P. Uberoi (eds) Tradition, plurality and identity. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1999.

Vasudev, A. and P. Lenglet (eds). Indian cinema super bazaar. Delhi: Vikas, 1983.

Vasudev, A. Liberty and license in Indian cinema. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1978 (on censorship regulations).

Vasudev, A. The new Indian cinema. New Delhi: Macmillan, 1986.

Vasudevan, Ravi (ed). Making meaning in Indian cinema. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000, 2001.



Arora, P. Imperilling the prestige of the white woman: colonial anxiety and film censorship in British India. ‘Visual Anthropology Review’ 11(2): Fall 1995.

Bharucha, R. Utopia in Bollywood: hum aapke hain kaun! ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: 15 April 1995: 801-804.

Bhaskar, I. Allegory, nationalism and cultural change in Indian cinema: ‘sant tukaram’. ‘Literature and Theology: An International Journal of Religion, Theory and Culture’ 12(1): March 1998: 50-69.

Bhaskar, I. Myth and ritual: Ghatak’s meghe dhaka tara. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’: April-June 1983: 43-50. Another version of this essay, Mother goddess ascendant, in K. Bhasin and B. Agarwal (eds) Women and media: analysis, alternatives and action. New Delhi: Kali for Women in collaboration with Isis International, Rome, 1984.

Cooper, Darius. The Hindi film song and Guru Dutt. ‘East-West Film Journal’ 2(2): June 1988.

Dhondy, Farrukh. Keeping faith: Indian film and its world. ‘Daedalus’ 114(4): Fall: 1985.

Dickey, S. The politics of adulation: cinema and the production of politicians in south India. ‘The Journal of Asian Studies’ 52(2): May: 340-72.

Hughes, S. The pre-Phalke era in south India: reflection on the formation of film audiences in Madras. ‘South Indian Studies’ 2: July-December 1996.

Juluri, Vamsee. Global weds local: the reception of hum aapke hain kaun. ‘European Journal of Cultural Studies’ 2(2): May 1999: 231-248.

Kapur, G. Cultural creativity in the first decade: the example of Satyajit Ray. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 23-24: January 1993: 17-49.

Kapur, G. Mythic material in Indian cinema. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 14(15): 1987: 79-107.

Krishen, P. (ed). Indian popular cinema: myth, meaning and metaphor. ‘India International Centre Quarterly’ 8 (1): special issue: March 1980.

Mazumdar, Ranjani. Dialectic of public and private. Representation of women in Bhoomika and Mirch Masala. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 26(43): October 1991: WS 81-84.

Misra, Vijay. Decentring history: some versions of Bombay cinema. ‘East-West Film Journal’ 6(1): January 1992: 111-155.

Misra, Vijay. Towards a theoretical critique of Bombay cinema. ‘Screen’ 26(3/4): 1985: 133-46.

Nandakumar, R. The star system: a note towards its sociology. ‘Deep Focus’ 4(2): 1992: 44-5.

Niranjana T. and V. Dhareshwar. Kaadalan and the politics of re-signification: fashion, violence and the body. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 29: January 1996; also in Vasudevan (ed) Making meaning in Indian cinema. Delhi: OUP, 2000.

Niranjana, T. Cinema, femininity and the economy of consumption. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 26(43): 26 October 1991.

Pandian, M.S.S. Tamil cultural elites and cinema: outline of an argument. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 13(15): April 1996. A Tamil translation was published in ‘Kalachuvadu’: July-September 1997.

Pendakur, M. New cultural technologies and the fading glitter of Indian cinema. ‘Quarterly Review of Film and Video’ 11(3): 1989.

Prasad, M. Cinema and the desire for modernity. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 25-26: 1993.

Rajadhyaksha, A. Cinema, culture industries, political societies. ‘Inter-Asia Cultural Studies’ 4(1): special issue: April 2003 (with Kim Soyoung).

Rajadhyaksha, A. The ‘Bollywoodization’ of the Indian cinema: cultural nationalism in a global arena. ‘Inter-Asia Cultural Studies’ 4(1): April 2003.

Rajadhyaksha, A. (ed) Film studies. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 29: special issue: January 1996.

Rajadhyaksha, A. Satyajit Ray: Ray’s films and the Ray-movie. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 23-24: January 1993. Earlier version, Beyond Orientalism, in ‘Sight and Sound’ 2(4): London.

Rajadhyaksha, A. The sad and the glad of Kishore Kumar. Bombay: Research Centre for Cinema Studies, 1988.

Rajadhyaksha, A. The Phalke era: conflict of traditional form and new technology. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 14-15: July-December 1987. Anthologized in Tejaswini Niranjana et al. (eds) Interrogating modernity: culture and colonialism in India. Calcutta: Seagull Books.

Rajadhyaksha, A. Ritwik Ghatak: a return to the epic Bombay. ‘Screen Unit’: 1982.

Thomas, R. Sanctity and scandal: the mythologisation of Mother India. ‘Quarterly Review of Film and Video’ 11(3): 1989.

Thomas, R. Indian cinema: pleasures and popularity. ‘Screen’ 26(3-4): 1985.

Vasudevan, R. Nationalism, realism and authenticity: the double take of modernism in the work of Satyajit Ray. ‘Journal of the Moving Image’: Jadavpur University, 2001; also available on www.sarai.net/filmcity

Vasudevan, R. Dislocations: the cinematic imagining of a new society in 1950s India. ‘Oxford Literary Review’ 16: 1995.

Vasudevan, R. Film studies, the new cultural history and the experience of modernity. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 30(44): 4 November 1995.

Vasudevan, R. You cannot live in society and ignore it: nationhood and female modernity in ‘Andaz’ (Mehboob Khan, 1949). ‘Contributions to Indian Sociology’ 29(1 & 2): 1995; reprinted in Patricia Uberoi (ed) Sexuality, social reform and the state. Delhi: Sage, 1995.

Vasudevan, R. Shifting codes, dissolving identities: the Hindi social film of the 1950s as popular culture. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 23: 1993. Reprinted in ‘Third Text’ 34: 1996 and Ravi S. Vasudevan (ed) Making meaning in Indian cinema. Delhi: OUP, 2000.

Vasudevan, R. The cultural space of a film narrative: interpreting kismet (Bombay Talkies, 1943). ‘Indian Economic and Social History Review’ 28(2): April-May 1991.

Vitali, V. The families of Hindi cinema: a socio-historical approach to film studies. ‘Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media’ 42: published online: Summer 2000: www.frameworkonline.com