Further reading

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Ambedkar, B.R. Emancipation of the untouchables. Bombay: Thacker and Co., 1972.

Badrinarayan. Documenting dissent, contesting fables, contested memories and dalit political discourse. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 2001.

Bhargava, G.S. Human rights of dalits (societal violation). New Delhi: Gyan Publishing, 1999.

Bhave, Sumitra. Pan on fire: eight dalit women tell their story. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute, 1988.

Charsley, Simon R. and G.K. Karanth (ed). Challenging untouchability: dalit initiative and experience from Karnataka. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1998.

Franco, Fernando, Jyotsna Macwan and Suguna Ramanathan. The silken swing: the cultural universe of dalit women. Calcutta: Stree, 2000.

Ghosh, G.K. and G. Shukla. Dalit women. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 1997.

Ilaiah, Kancha. Why I am not a Hindu: a sudra critique of hindutva philosophy, culture and political economy. Calcutta: Samya, 1996.

Jogdand, P.G. (ed). Dalit women: issues and perspectives. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 1995.

Jogdand, P.G. (ed). New economic policy and dalits. New Delhi: Rawat Publications, 2000.

Joshi, Barbara R. Democracy in search of equality: untouchable politics and Indian social change. Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 1982.

Joshi, Barbara R. Untouchable: voice of the dalit liberation on movement. New Delhi: Select Book Service Syndicate, 1986.

Khosla, Dinesh. Myth and reality of the protection of civil rights law: a case study of untouchability in rural India. Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 1987.

Kotani, H. Caste system, untouchability and the depressed. Delhi, Manohar, 1997.

Kshirsagar, R.K. Dalit movement in India and its leaders. New Delhi: M.D. Publications, 1994.

Louis, Prakash. Casteism is more horrendous than racism: Durban and dalit discourse. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute, 2001.

Mahar, J. Michael (ed). The untouchables in contemporary India. Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 1998.

Mathew, Joseph. Ideology, protest and social mobility: case study of mahars and pulayas. New Delhi: Inter-India Publications, 1986.

Mendelsohn, Oliver and Marika Vicziany. The untouchables: subordination, poverty and the state in modern India. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Omvedt, Gail. Dalit visions. (tracts for the times). New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1995.

Omvedt, Gail. Dalits and the democratic revolution. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1994.

Parish, Steven M. Hierarchy and its discontents: culture and the politics of consciousness in caste society. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

Paswan, Sanjay and Pramanshi Jaideva. Encyclopedia of dalits in India: general study. Vol. I-XI. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2001.

Pendse, Sandeep. At cross-roads dalit movement today. Bombay: Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, 1994.

Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. Emancipations, modern and post-modern. London: Sage Publication, 1992.

Poddar, Bhagirath. The untouchables in modern India. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons, 2001.

Prasad, Ravi D.M. Dalit youth: a sociological study. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 1997.

Prasad, Vijay. Untouchable freedom: a social history of a dalit community. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Ram, Nandu. Beyond Ambedkar: essays on dalits in India. New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications, 1995.

Robb, Peter (ed). Dalit movements and the meanings of labour in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Shah, Ghanshyam (ed). Dalit identity and politics. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2001.

Sharma, G.S. Legislation and cases on untouchability and scheduled castes in India. New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1975.

Shyamlal. The bhangi: a sweeper caste, its socio-economic portraits – with special reference to Jodhpur city. Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1992.

Singh, S.K. Dalit women: socio economic status and issues. Lucknow: New Royal Book Co., 2000.

Teltumbde, Anand. Ambedkar in and for the post-Ambedkar dalit movement. Pune: Sugawa Prakashan, 1997.

Zelliot, Eleanor. From untouchable to dalit: essays on the Ambedkar movement. Delhi: Manohar, 1996.



Agnivesh, Swami, et. al. Discrimination that must be cast away. ‘The Hindu’ (New Delhi): 6 June 2001.

Alex, Binu. Dalit movement comes of age. ‘Humanscape’ 8(8): September 2001: 6-8.

Ali, Amir. Durban and after. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 36(37): 15-21 September 2001: 3508-3509.

Anaimuthu, V. Durban world congress on racism: caste must be discussed. ‘Periyar Era’ 7(10): July 2001: 1-5.

APWLD. Double discrimination for marginalised women in Asia. ‘Human Rights Solidarity’ 11(9): September 2001: 8-9.

Asian Human Rights Commission. Occupation and descent-based discrimination against dalits. ‘Human Rights Solidarity’ 11(4): April 2001: 3-10.

Bal, Gian Singh. Caste discrimination and Durban conference. ‘Mainstream’ 39(38): 8 September 2001: 18.

Bandyopadhay, Sarbani. Class conflict. ‘The Statesmen’: 6 June 2001.

Barik, Satyasundar. Wash my feet, it’s your duty. ‘Humanscape’ 8(8): 8 September 2001: 25-26.

Beteille, Andre. Caste consciousness. ‘The Times of India’: 30 August 2001.

Beteille, Andre. Caste consciousness: initiate an open discussion in Durban. ‘The Times of India’: 30 August 2001.

Beteille, Andre. Race and caste. ‘The Hindu’: 10 March 2001.

Bhagwati, P.N. The caste and race debate. ‘PUCL’ 21(7): July 2001: 3-8.

Bhanutej, N. Naked assault: dalit woman is stripped and paraded for two hours in Karnataka. ‘The Week’ 19(39): 9 September 2001: 43.

Bhardwaj, Mukesh. Upper caste bias hits new law: human waste. ‘Indian Express’: 13 April 2000.

Biswas, A.K. Discrimination – caste or racial, how does it matter for the discriminated. ‘Mainstream’ 39(30): 14 July 2001: 21-23.

Chandhoke, Neera. Backlash against affirmative action. ‘The Hindu’: 2 June 2001.

Chopra, Pran. Let it burn up caste. ‘The Hindu’: 16 March 1999.

Chowdhary, Kameshwar. Violation of human rights: the case of dalits in Gujarat. ‘Indian Journal of Human Rights’ 4(1&2): January-December 2000: 158-172.

Dang, Satyapal. Caste discrimination and communist parties. ‘Mainstream’ 39(35): 18 August 2001: 20.

Das, Soumitro. Dalit challenges: no change in pattern of oppression. ‘The Statesmen’: 4 September 2001.

Das, Soumitro. Caste and race: physiological difference and alien origin. ‘The Statesmen’: 5 June 2001.

Desai, Radhika. India’s ugliness in the Kutchi mirror. ‘The Hindu’: 4 May 2001.

Dhavan, Rajeev. India’s apartheid. ‘The Hindu’: 24 August 2001.

Dogra, Bharat. Battling caste and gender stigmas. ‘The Statesmen’: 12 July 2001.

Duffee, Richard, Z. Prejudicial exploitation: the issue of caste and race. ‘Indian Journal of Human Rights’ 4(1&2): January-December, 2000: 25-64.

Dutt, Anuradha. The afternoon of the caste system. ‘The Pioneer’: 10 July 2001.

Elliott, Michael. The disgrace in Durban. ‘Time’ 158(11): 17 September 2001: 33.

Ganguly, Meenakshi, et al. The revolution against caste. ‘Time’: 13 April 1992: 10-17.

Gatade, Subhash. Silence of the lambs? Durban and the Indian elite. ‘Mainstream’ 39(31): 21 July 2001: 23-26.

Gundimeda, Sambaiah. Emergence of caste consciousness among the Madigas of Andhra Pradesh. ‘Dalit International Newsletter’ (USA) 6(1): February 2001: 5- 9.

Gupta, Dipanker. Caste is not race, but let’s go to the UN forum anyway. ‘The Times of India’: 18 August 2001.

Guru, Gopal. The left and the caste question. ‘The Hindu’: 20 December 2000.

Haragopal, G. Dalit consciousness in Andhra: a hypothesis. ‘Indian Journal of Human Rights’ 4(1&2): January-December 2000: 137-148.

Haslam, David. Caste and the world conference against racism. ‘Dalit International Newsletter’ (USA) 6(2): June 2001: 6-7, 12.

Ilaiah, Kancha. Caste and the U.N. meet. ‘The Hindu’: 21 August 2001.

Ilaiah, Kancha. Durban, caste and Indian democracy. ‘The Hindu’: 11 June 2001.

Iyer, Lakshmi. Dalit women bear the burden of untouchability. ‘The Pioneer’: 21 December 1998.

Jain, Devaki. Slavery, then and now. ‘Indian Express’: 10 September 2001.

Jhunjhunwala, Bharat. Discuss caste at Durban. ‘The Pioneer’: 21 August 2001.

Jogdand, P.G. Human rights violation of the dalits: an inquiry into Indian social reality. ‘Indian Journal of Human Rights’ 4(1&2): January-December 2000: 121-134.

Kalidas, Rajendra. Prevention of discrimination and protection of indigenous peoples and minorities. ‘Human Rights Solidarity’ (USA) 11(9): September 2001: 3-7.

Kannabiran, K.G. We, the other people. ‘The Hindu’: 8 June 2001.

Kannabiran, Kalpana. Caste, the democracy and dalit women. ‘The Hindu’: 20 June 2001.

Kumar Davinder. The race to be heard. ‘Outlook’ 61(35): 10 September 2001: 26.

Kumar, Vivek. A blow for dalit dignity and pride. ‘The Pioneer’: 25 September 2001.

Louis, Prakash. ‘Dalits’ even in disaster: the politics of relief operation in Gujarat. ‘Indian Journal of Human Rights’ 4(1&2): Jan-Dec. 2000: 208-222.

Louis, Prakash. Caste and hatred: violence on the dalits. ‘Social Action’ 50(3): July-September 2000: 287-302.

Louis, Prakash. Dalit human rights: problems and opportunities. ‘Humanscape’ 8(8): September 2001: 14-15.

Louis, Prakash. Doors of Durban conference closed for the dalits. ‘Mainstream’ 39(31): 21 July 2001: 27-29.

Malekar, Anosh. Noise from the fringes. ‘The Week’ 19(41) 23 September 2001: 10.

Malekar, Anosh. Race against injustice. ‘The Week’ 19(39) 9 September 2001: 40-41.

Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. Dalits and economic liberalization. ‘The Hindu’: 5 September 2000.

Menon, N.R. Madhavan. Tackling discrimination. ‘The Hindu’: 3 August 2001.

Menon, Sreelatha. SC-ST panel seeks quota in judiciary. ‘Indian Express’: 1 September 2001.

Mistry, Mihir. Dalits forced indoors as fear stalks Gujarat hamlet. ‘The Times of India’: 20 November 1998.

Mohan, Surendra. The deeply embedded caste system. ‘The Hindu’: 27 November 1998.

Mukerjee, Hiren. Casteist infamies: India must not equivocate in Durban. ‘The Statesmen’: 22 August 2001.

Mungekar, B.L. Globalization and the dalits. ‘Radical Humanist’ 65(1): April 2001: 9-10.

Narnag, A.S. Caste at Durban: why and how. ‘Mainstream’ 39(31): 21 July 2001: 21-22.

Nauttyal, Shefali. They hurt them without touching them. ‘Indian Express’: 15 July 2001.

Nayar, Kuldip. Dalit, Durban and a lost chance. ‘The Pioneer’: 11 September 2001.

Omvedt, Gail. Caste, race and sociologists. ‘The Hindu’: 18 October 2001.

Omvedt, Gail. The U.N., racism and caste. ‘The Hindu’: 4 April 2001.

Oommen, T.K. Dalits and production of knowledge. ‘The Hindu’: 13 September 1999.

Pal, R.M. Caste based discrimination on UN agenda. ‘Radical Humanist’ 65(6): September 2001:1-6.

Pal, R.M. Durban: a victims’ conference. ‘Mainstream’ 39(40): 22 September 2001: 6-8.

Pal, R.M. Remembering M.N. Roy and his heresy. human rights of dalits on the agenda of UN. ‘Mainstream’ 39(14): 24 March 2001: 23-25.

Panda, Rajaram. Phoolan’s killing fuels polarisation of caste politics. ‘Mainstream’ 39(34): 11 August 2001: 7-11.

Panini, M.N. Caste, race and human rights. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 36(35): 1-7 September 2001: 3344-3346.

Pathak, Bindeshwar. Sore on Indian’s social structure. ‘The Pioneer’: 3 March 2000.

Pathak, Bindeshwar. Untouchability still stalks India. ‘The Pioneer’: 1 October 1998.

Pinto, Ambrose. UN conference against racism: is caste race? ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: 28 July 2001: 2817-2820.

Prabhudesai, Sandesh. Dalits still struggling. ‘The Pioneer’: 25 September 2001.

Prasad, Chandrabhan. Blacks in US media and blackouts in India. ‘The Pioneer’: 8 April 2001.

Prasad, Chandrabhan. The Durban dip can cleanse a billion sins. ‘The Pioneer’: 12 August 2001.

Prasad, M. Madhava. Touching others: perception of the dalits struggle are shaped by upper caste fantasies. ‘The Telegraph’: 25 May 2000.

Radhakrishnan, P. Dalits and Durban. ‘The Hindu’: 27 August 2001.

Raina, Badri. Caste and race: discrimination by any name. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 36(32): 11 August 2001: 3025-3026.

Raj, Felix. Dalit identity: the search for equality and dignity. ‘The Statesman’: 2 May 2001.

Rajappa, Sam. Caste cauldron boils over. ‘The Statesman’: 24 October 1998.

Raju, K. Where dalits are forced to bathe with buffaloes. ‘Indian Express’: 8 December 1998.

Reddy, S. Gopinath. Upper caste obstinacy crushes fight for equality. ‘Indian Express’: 4 May 1999.

Sabrang Team. A question of caste. ‘Communalism Combat’ 8(68) April 2001: 7-18.

Sabrang Team. Dalit and Muslim women grapple with the triple burden of caste, community, class and gender. ‘Communalism Combat’ 8(69): May 2001: 8-11.

Sabrang Team. Dalit drishti. ‘Communalism Combat’ 8(65): January 2001: 31.

Sabrang Team. Dalit drishti. ‘Communalism Combat’ 8(66): February 2001: 30.

Sankaran, S.R. Fifty years of the Indian constitution – human rights of daits. ‘Indian Journal of Human Rights’ 4(1&2): January-December 2000: 69-82.

Setalvad, Teesta. A date with Durban. ‘Communalism Combat’ 9(71): September 2001: 39-41.

Setalvad, Teesta. Demons in their mind. ‘The Hindu’: 28 August 2001.

Singh, Shubha. Caste-iron discrimination. ‘The Pioneer’: 20 August 2001.

Singh, Vir. Is Durban the answer? ‘The Hindu’: 2 September 2001.

Sob, Durga. The triple oppression of dalit women in Nepal. ‘Human Rights Solidarity’ (USA) 11(8): August 2001: 8-10.

Subramaniam, K.S. Violence against scheduled caste in India: overview, problems and prospects. ‘Man and Development’ 9(1): March 1987: 26-42.

Thekaekara, Mari Marcel. What next for India’s dalit? ‘The Hindu’: 13 September 2001.

Varma, N.M.P. Educational deprivation of women and dalits in South Asia. ‘Indian Journal of Human Rights’ 4(1&2): January-December 2000: 181-192.

Visvanathan, Shiv. Durban and dalit discourse. ‘Economic and political Weekly’ 36(33): 18-24 August 2001: 3123-3127.

Visvanathan, Shiv. The race for caste: prolegomena to the Durban conference. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: 7 July 2001: 2512-2516.



Amnesty International. Racism and the administration of justice. Amnesty International Publication, UK, 2001.

Amnesty International. Using the international human rights system to combat racial discrimination. Amnesty International Publication, UK, 2001.

Chennaiah, P. Dalit activists protesting panchayat election results illegally detained, stripped, tortured and paraded naked in Chillamanur by police of Venkatagiri circle, Nellore District. Update Collective (134): 19 September 2001: 1-4.

Divakar, N. Paul, et al. A historical overview of achievements and future action agenda. National Campaign for Dalit Human Rights, New Delhi, 2001.

Human Rights Watch. Broken people: caste violence against India’s ‘untouchables’. Human Rights Watch Publication, USA, 1999.

Indian Social Institute. Murder and mayhem in Pankhan: atrocities on the dalits of Gujarat. A report submitted to the National Human Rights Commission, New Delhi, 2000.

Louis, Prakash. Caste discrimination is draconian than racial discrimination: an appeal to address in the world conference against racism. Update Collective (133): June 2001: 1-8.

Louis, Prakash. Durban and post-Durban dalit discourse: retrospect and prospect. Indian Social Institute, New Delhi, 2001.

Martin, Macwan. Caste may not be race. National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, New Delhi, 2001.

Oommen, T.K., et al. Caste is race and plus, say academics, jurists and civil society groups at Delhi Conference. New Delhi, 2001.

UN. United Nations declaration and international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination. United Nations Department of Public Information, USA, 1997.

UN. World conference against racism. United Nations Information Centre Lodi Estate, New Delhi, 2001.



Caste (70): June 1965; The Untouchables (177): May 1974; Harijans (243): November 1979; Reserved Futures (375): November 1990; Dalit (471): November 1998.