Further reading

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Aggarwal, S.P. and J.C. Aggarwal, et.al. Educational and social upliftment of backward classes: at what cost and how? Mandal commission and after. Delhi: South Asia Books, 1991.

Ahmed, S. Occupational segregation and caste-based discrimination in India. In M. Shaha, Labour market segmentation in India. Mumbai: Himalaya, 1999.

Barthwal, C.P. Social justice in India. Lucknow: Bharat Book Centre, 1998.

Beteille, Andre. The backward classes in contemporary India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Chandran, E. Reservations for OBCs: Mandal commission report. Cosmos Bookhive, 1990.

Engineer, Asghar Ali. Mandal commission controversy. Delhi: South Asia Books, 1991.

Galanter, Marc. Law and society in modern India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Goyal, Santosh. Social background of corporate executives. In Francime Frankel and M.S.A. Rao (ed.), Dominance and state power in modern India. Vol. II. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Hooda, Preet Sagar. Contesting reservations: the Indian experiment on affirmative action. Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2001.

Jaffrelot, C. India’s silent revolution: the rise of the lower castes in north India. Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003.

Jaffrelot, C. Dr. Ambedkar and untouchability: analysing and fighting caste. Delhi: Permanent Black, 2005

Jaswal, S.S. Reservation policy and the law: myths and reality of the constitutional safeguards to scheduled castes. Delhi: Deep and Deep, 2000.

Karlekar, H. In the mirror of Mandal: social justice, caste-class and the individual. New Delhi: Ajanta, 1992.

Mahajan, Gurpreet (ed.) Democracy, difference and social justice. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Maheshwari, S.R. The Mandal commission and mandalisation: a critique. New Delhi: Concept Publishers, 1991.

Malik, Surendra. Supreme court: Mandal commission case. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 1992.

Michael, S.M. (ed.) Dalits in modern India. New Delhi: Vistaar, 1999.

Mishra, V.C. (ed.) Reservation crisis in India: legal and sociological study on Mandal commission report. Delhi: (Bar Council of India) Universal Book Trust, 1992.

Mitra, Subrata Kumar (ed.) Policies of positive discrimination: a cross national perspective. Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1990.

Nesiah, Devanesan. Discrimination with reason? the policy of reservation in the United States, India and Malaysia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Pai Panandiker, V A. (ed.) The politics of backwardness: reservation policy in India. New Delhi: Konark Publisher, 1997.

Prasad, Anuradha. Reservational justice to other backward classes: theoretical and practical issues. New Delhi: Deep and Deep, 1997.

Purohit, B.D. and S.D. Purohit. Handbook of reservation for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Jainsons Publications, 1990.

Rao, K.N. and S.S. Ahluwalia. Mandal report X-rayed. Delhi: Eastern Books, 1990.

Rupa, C. Reservation policy: Mandal commission and after. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1991.

Shah, Ghanshyam (ed.) Dalits and the state. New Delhi: Concept Publishing House, 2002.

Sharma, B. and K. Madhusudhan Reddy. Reservation policy in India. New Delhi: Light and Life, 2001.

Sheth, D.L. Reservations policy revisited. In Manoranjan Mohanty (ed.), Class, caste, gender. New Delhi: Sage, 2004.

Singh, Shail. Reservation policy and social justice. Delhi: Y.K. Publishers, 2002.

Srinivas, M.N. Caste as a twentieth century avatar. New Delhi: Viking, 2000.

Upadhayay, H.C. Reservation for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 1991.

Yadav, K.C. India’s unequal citizens: a study of other backward classes. Delhi: Manohar, 1994.


Abraham, A.S. True impact of OBC quotas: unravelling of new emergent order. ‘Times of India’: 10 October 1990.

Aggarwal V.C. Reservation for whom, why and how much: constitutional provisions and judicial verdict. ‘Indian Journal of Public Administration’ 49(2): April-June 2003.

Aiyar, Swaminathan. Diversity doesn’t mean reservation. ‘Times of India’: 23 July 2004.

Bajaj, Rahul. Devoid of merit: reservation will kill Indian private sector. ‘Times of India’: 21 September 2004.

Balagopal, K. This anti-Mandal mania. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 25(40): 6 October 1990.

Banerji, B.K. Merit in services. ‘Seminar’ 375: November 1990.

Baxi, Upendra. Justice journey for backward classes. ‘Lokayan Bulletin’ 8(4-5): July-October 1990.

Baxi, Upendra. Mandal commission: historic need for reasoned national dialogue. ‘Mainstream’ 27(48): 22 September 1990.

Beteille, Andre. Is job reservation a good policy? ‘Seminar’ 375: November 1990.

Beteille, Andre. Distributive justice and institutional well-being. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: Annual No.: 1991.

Beteille, Andre. Quotas for companies: the Congress has taken competitive populism to new heights. ‘The Telegraph’: 12 October 2004.

Bhalla, Surjeet S. In the face of job reservations. ‘Business Standard’: 16 June 2001.

Bhambhri, C.P. Reservation and casteism. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 40(9): 26 Feb-4 March 2005.

Bhaumik, T.K. Wanted: working class revolution. ‘Economic Times’: 14 September 2004.

Chalam, K.S. Caste reservations and equality of opportunity in education. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 25(41): 13 October 1990.

Chandhoke, Neera. Reservations about reservation. ‘The Hindu’: 16 August 2004.

Chaube, S.K. Mandal commission: will the centre hold? ‘Mainstream’ 28(52): 20 October 1990.

Chaudhary, Pradipta. The creamy layer: political economy of reservations. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: 15 May 2004.

Chaudhuri, Mrinal Datta. Mandal and the Berlin wall. ‘Seminar’ 377: Annual Number: 1991.

Das, Bhagwan. Moments in a history of reservation. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 35(43-44): 21 October-3 November 2000.

Devanathan, Parthasarthy. On reservations in the private sector. ‘IITB’: 29 June 2004.

D.N. Reservation and class structure of castes. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 25(2): 13 January 1990.

Engineer, Asghar Ali. Why Mandal report should be implemented. ‘Mainstream’ 29(14): 1991.

Gupta, Dipankar. Extending reservations. ‘The Times of India’: 5 February 2002.

Guru, Gopal. Politics of representation. ‘Seminar’ 505: December 2001.

Illiah, Kancha. On reservations, a wake up call. ‘Indian Express’: 22 July 2004.

Iyer, Ramaswamy R. Towards clarity on the reservation question. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 26(9-10): 2-9 March 1991.

Jogdand, P.G. Reservation in private sector: legislation in Maharashtra. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 39(30): 24-30 July 2004.

Kothari, Rajni. Essence of Mandal report. ‘Mainstream’ 28(50): 6 October 1990.

Kumar, Vivek. Understanding the politics of reservation: a perspective from below. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 40(9): 26 February-4 March 2005.

Kundu, Amitabh. Reservationists, anti-reservationists and democracy. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 25(45): November 1990.

Louis, Prakash. Scheduled castes and tribes: the reservation debate. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 38(25): 21-27 June 2003.

Masani, Minoo. Abolish reservations: promote meritocracy. ‘Mainstream’ 28(1): 6 January1990.

Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. Affirmation without reservation. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 39(27): 3-9 July 2004.

Natraj, V.K. Reservations: seeking new perspectives. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 34(34-35): 21 August-2 September 1999.

Nayak, Pulin B. On equality and distributive justice. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: Annual No.: 1991.

Osborne, Evan. Culture development and government: reservations in India. ‘Eonomic Development and Cultural Change’ 49(3): April 2001.

Patwardhan, Vasant and S. Palshikar. Reserved seats in medical education. ‘Journal of Education and Social Change’: Pune: 1992.

Pinto, Ambrose. Is reservation the answer for dalit empowernment. ‘Journal of Rural Development’ 19(4): October–December 2000.

Radhakrishnan, P. Job quotas in the private sector. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: 2 October 2004.

Rai, Sheela. Social and conceptual background to policy of reservation. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 37(42): 19-25 October 2002.

Ramaiah, A. Identifying other backward classes. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 27(23): 6 June 1992.

Santosh Kumar, G. Government politics and reservation policy in Karnataka. ‘Social Action’ 53(2): April-June 2003.

Shah, A.M. Job reservations and inefficiency. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 26(29): 20 July 1991.

Shah, Ghanshyam. Social backwardness and politics of reservation. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: Annual No.: 1991.

Sheth, D.L. Future of caste in India – a dialogue. ‘Contributions to Indian Sociology’ 25(2): 1991.

Sheth, D.L. Muslim reservations: no provision for communal quotas. ‘The Times of India’: 20 September 1997.

Sheth, D.L. Secularization of caste and making of new middle class. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 34(34-35): 21 August 1999.

Sheth, D.L. Caste, ethnicity and exclusion in South Asia. Human Development Report 2004. Delhi: UNDP.

Srinivas, M.N. South’s lead on Mandal. ‘Times of India’: 7 October 1990.

Thimmanjan, G, Implication of reservation in private sector. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 40(8): 19-25 February 2005.

Thorat, Sukhadeo. On reservation policy for private sector. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 39(25): 19-25 June 2004.

Thorat, Sukhadeo. Reservations and efficiency, myth and reality. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 40(9): 26 February-4 March 2005.

Thummala, Krishna K. Politics of preference in public service: the case of Mandal. ‘Indian Journal of Political Science’ 55(4): October-December 1994.

Weisskopf, Thomas E. Consequences of affirmative action in US higher education: a review of recent empirical studies. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: 22 December 2001.


Backward Classes Commission. Report. Government of Haryana, controller of printing and stationary, Haryana, 1990.

Chitnis, S. A. Long way to go. (Report prepared for ICSSR) Surat: Centre for Social Studies, 1997.

GOI. Report of the backward classes commission. 7 volumes. New Delhi, 1990.

Gujarat. Report of the backward classes commission. Ahemdabad, 1990.

Haryana. Report of the backward classes commission. Chandigarh, 1991.

Karnataka. Report of the Karnataka third backward classes commission. 2 volumes. Bangalore, 1990.

National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Sheduled Tribes. Fifth report, 1998-99, Vol. I, p. 130-31.

Raju, Ramachandra. Report on reservation for scheduled castes in Andhra. 2000.

The Bhopal Document. Chartering a new course for dalits for the 21st century. Government of Madhya Pradesh, 2002.


The Untouchables (175): May 1974; Reservations (268): December 1981; Reserved Futures (375): November 1990; Dalit (472): November 1998; Exclusion (508): December 2001.